Other Names: Spatial Injustice, Geographical Inequality, Location Discrimination, Spatial Apartheid
The unequal distribution or access to resources and/or opportunities based on location
Alexandra Township in context to Sandton, Johannesburg: Unequal Scenes – Johnny Miller
Spatial Inequality refers to the uneven distribution or access given to socially valued resources and opportunities, based on location in space or boundaries set by such conditions. It is not a causality of development, but causality of how cities and regions are planned and governed and where resources and opportunities are allocated.
Typically, the most familiar forces shaping locational and spatial discrimination are considered to be race, class, religion, culture or gender.
In South Africa the legacy of colonial and Apartheid planning have set patterns of spatial development that fundamentally remain in place today, but newer forms of spatial inequality are manifesting post-1994 along lines of gentrification, urban sprawl, and housing/land access.
Areas/places in that demonstrate Spatial Inequality
Apartheid Era contrasts:
Gugulethu/Cape Town CBD (Cape Town)
Woodstock/Saltriver (Cape Town)
Maboneng/Jeppes Town (Johannesburg)
U.S.A: Chicago (South/North side)
India: Mumbai (Dharavi/Mumbai Suburbs)
Europe: Paris (Inner/Outer Core)
South America: Sao Paulo (Rocinho/Adjacent Neighborhoods)
Middle East: Palestine/Israel: WestBank Barrier
Unequal Scenes – Johnny Miller
Spatial Inequality Slide Show – Edgar Pieterse
What exactly is ‘spatial apartheid’ and why is it still relevant? –Daily Vox ( Mohammed Jameel Abdulla)
Spatial Inequality – African Center for Cities
The Right to the City and Urban Resistance – David Harvey
Online Platform – Right to the City Alliance
Seeking Spatial Justice and the Right to the City – Edward Soja
Urban Equity in Development – Cities for Life – UN Habitat
Pieterse, E. and Owens, K. (2018) ‘Johannesburg : Confronting Spatial Inequality’, Case Study.
Myambo, M. T. et al. (2018) Reversing Urban Inequality in Johannesburg. 1st edn, Reversing Urban Inequality in Johannesburg. 1st edn. Edited by M. T. Myambo. Johannesburg: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9780429453304.
Turok, I. (2018) ‘Worlds Apart: Spatial Inequalities in South Africa’, Confronting Inequality: The South African crisis, (February), pp. 129–151. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331024691_Worlds_Apart_Spatial_Inequalities_in_South_Africa.
South African Cities Network (SACN) (2020) State of Cities Reports – SA Cities, Knowledge Hub. Available at: https://www.sacities.net/state-of-cities-reports-2/ (Accessed: 26 August 2020).
Dikeç, M. (2009) Space, politics and (in)justice. Available at: https://www.jssj.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/JSSJ1-6en1.pdf (Accessed: 26 August 2020).
Harvey, D. (2009) Social Justice and the City. Revised. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. Available at: https://books.google.co.za/books?hl=en&lr=&id=VCwLi2nVmooC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&ots=RfCqIe11Z_&sig=D22HJxUgWDBydCbUgoxEhlpnWh4&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=fals.
Berg, A. G. and Ostry, J. D. (2017) ‘Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?’, IMF Economic Review, 65(4), pp. 792–815. doi: 10.1057/s41308-017-0030-8.